Our expertise

Climate Finance

There is an increasing range of institutions providing financing for climate change mitigation and adaptation, such as the Green Climate Fund (GCF), Adaptation Fund and the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Developing proposals for such multi-and bilateral climate finance providers requires an in-depth knowledge of the specific selection criteria that the targeted funder applies. A sustainable financial mechanism and business model which can mobilize transformational impacts and sustainable development co-benefits are only two key aspects that need to be clearly demonstrated to make a climate finance application successful.

Our practical advice for climate finance applications is based on strategic evaluation and the development of GCF as well as NAMA facility applications for Burkina Faso (SNV), Colombia (CAF), El Salvador (AECID/IDB), Ethiopia (DFID), Peru (GIZ) Tanzania (UNDP) and Uzbekistan (UNDP) and as well as supporting developing country institutions in prioritizing GCF submissions. 

Moreover, Perspectives’ experts work with public institutions such as national climate funds to build their capacity and develop strategies on how to access climate finance.

Perspectives has also provided advisory services and conducted academic research on climate finance accounting in the context of the international efforts to mobilize large-scale climate finance, as well as on how to mobilize additional private climate finance contributions, e.g. through green bonds.

CDM & Private Sector Advisory

The private sector plays a key role in providing innovation, technology and finance for climate action. Private companies can benefit from international, national and regional climate policy frameworks and the economic incentives they provide for low carbon investments (e.g. carbon trading, feed-in tariffs, green certificates, results-based climate finance etc.). Often, private companies face challenges in accessing those markets due to complex regulatory requirements. Perspectives has successfully supported numerous companies in navigating the political and regulatory challenges and engaging profitably in carbon markets. One of them is the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) where Perspectives supported sizeable private sector investments enabling a reduction of several millions of tonnes of CO2, unlocking revenues of hundreds of millions of Euros. We are also the world leader in developing greenhouse gas mitigation methodologies, e.g. for baseline and monitoring of such activities under standards recognized by the UN and other international bodies.

UNFCCC Negotiations & Conference Support

International climate policy builds on a continuous process of multilateral negotiations since the early 1990s. Annually, the Conference of the Parties (COP) brings together all member states of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Perspectives’ experts have participated as observers and advisors in this process since COP 1 in 1995.

We have supported countries hosting the COP such as Mexico in 2010 and Qatar in 2012 as well as government delegations (Morocco, UAE) in understanding the key issues at stake in the negotiations and suggesting ways forward. We have organized over 100 official side events featuring leading negotiators and international experts on key issues for the negotiations. Our network to senior negotiators, experts and other observer organizations is extremely broad and can be mobilized at short notice.


In contrast to mitigation, an efficient and widely recognized approach to selecting and/or assessing adaptation actions and related impact metrics has not yet emerged on the international level. The Paris Agreement’s increased focus on adaptation requires comprehensive efforts to develop National Adaptation Plans (NAPs). Perspectives has supported governments and international organizations in technical assistance for NAP development. Moreover, attempts of climate finance institutions to upscale adaptation financing increase the relevance of national adaptation planning as well as related common metrics to assess the performance of adaptation actions. Through our “Saved Wealth – Saved Health” approach we provide a tool to increase the effectiveness of adaptation finance. Through a set of two performance indicators – one monetary, one denominated in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)- you can compare the expected and actual adaptation outcomes of your projects according to a robust methodology. We also assess synergies between mitigation and adaptation, including the mitigation cobenefits of adaptation action.

MRV, Methodologies & Data Analysis

With the involvement of all countries in the Paris Agreement, measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of mitigation impacts is becoming more important. It is also a crucial component of international and domestic carbon markets and results-based climate finance. Our engineers are experts in assessing which MRV approaches are robust yet efficient and affordable. They can develop new methodologies and impact frameworks, develop tools for simplified applicability, and translate lessons from one MRV system to another. With large databases of mitigation and adaptation projects, we can also provide you with proxy data for your mitigation planning.


Under the Paris Agreement, all countries have communicated their pledges through Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). Developing NDCs requires substantial knowledge of emission trends and mitigation and adaptation potential over time and multi-disciplinary expertise. Perspectives staff have supported NDC development in various countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America & the Caribbean and understand both the methodological foundations of strong NDCs, as well as how important comprehensive stakeholder consultation is.

NDC implementation needs to build on sector-specific mitigation policy instruments. Over the last decade, such policy instruments have mainly been developed as part of “Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions” (NAMAs). Perspectives is a world leader in supporting governments and development agencies in NAMA development. In over 20 developing countries, Perspectives has supported NAMA concepts and related financing strategies inter alia covering waste management, cement production, buildings, renewable energy, energy efficiency, and the transport sector. Several of these concepts have been funded by the NAMA Facility which selects only about 10% of submitted proposals.

Market Mechanism Design

International and domestic market mechanisms for climate change mitigation have undergone many changes in the last two decades. Perspectives’ experts have actively contributed to the design and reform of such mechanisms, beginning in the 1990s with the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. We continuously have supported government agencies and international organizations in understanding reform needs and implementing changes. Given our rich experience, we are actively engaged in supporting the transition of existing rules and project pipelines to as well as the piloting of upscaled approaches under the next generation of market mechanisms under the Paris Agreement.

Climate Policy Research

The evolving design of climate policy instruments on the international and national level requires a good understanding of the political economy, economics of mitigation options and interactions between instruments. Perspectives’ staff has a strong academic background, affiliations with various universities and has been actively researching such issues over the last 20 years, and has over hundred peer reviewed research articles to its credit. Dr. Axel Michaelowa has been an IPCC lead author in the 4th and 5th Assessment Report. Research topics include e.g. adaptation metrics, climate finance, market mechanisms, UNFCCC negotiations, interest groups and national climate policy instrument choice, climate engineering governance and impacts of, CO2-free energy supply technologies on energy markets.

Perspectives Climate Research is a non-profit institution that works with research grants from foundations and public institutions such as the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, the European Union, and the Swedish Energy Agency. Through our close links to world class research institutions like the University of Zurich, the University of Freiburg and the Institute of Advanced Sustainability Studies as well as Utrecht University, we can set up multi-disciplinary teams.


Capacity Building

“Parachuting” consultants into developing countries often does not lead to long-term results. For effective and sustainable technical assistance, you need long-term trust building. Perspectives has multi-year experience and strong working relationships with policymakers and technical experts in key countries for international climate policy including Australia, Bhutan, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Japan, Madagascar, Mexico, Morocco, New Zealand, Peru, Rwanda, Saudi-Arabia, Senegal, Spain, Sudan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, UK, United States, and Vietnam, where we work with local experts. We have provided experts for strategic advisory services, capacity building and training courses in over 30 countries and understand the relevance of cross-cultural communication.


successful projects


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worldwide consultants